Using external hardware with Live
- Live Versions: 8 - 9
- Operating System: All
Working with hardware devices
Live allows for seamless integration of external gear such as synthesizers, drum machines, samplers and effects through the use of MIDI.
This step by step guide will show various methods of working with external hardware in Live.
- Step 1 - Connect your hardware
- Step 2 - Configure Live's audio preferences
- Step 3 - Configure Live's MIDI preferences
- Step 4 - Control the hardware from Live
- Step 5 - Using Hardware Effects
- Step 6 - Recording the hardware as audio
- Step 7 - Minimizing Latency
In order to control most hardware using Live you'll need to have the following:
- A hardware device with a MIDI port (if not MIDI enabled, a suitable convertor is necessary - for example MIDI to CV/Gate)
- A MIDI interface or free MIDI port (to send MIDI signals to the device)
- An audio interface (to monitor and record the audio signal)
MIDI/Audio over USB: If your device supports either of these protocols then a USB cable can be connected to your computer and used in place of either a MIDI interface or Audio interface respectively.
Connect your hardware:
- Connect the MIDI out of your MIDI interface to the MIDI in on the hardware device
- Connect the audio out of the hardware device to the input on your audio interface
- If your device also has a MIDI out port, then you can connect it to Live if you wish to record MIDI data from the hardware. Connect the MIDI out port of your device to the MIDI in port on your MIDI interface.
- If the device supports MIDI or Audio over USB, then connect it to your computer using a USB cable
If you are monitoring hardware within Live (in order to process its sound with effects and/or record it) then open Live's preferences to the Audio tab. Enable your audio interface and click "Input Config":
Then enable the inputs which are connected to your hardware:
If using a device which supports audio over USB, then you can select that device as the audio interface in Live's audio preferences. Note: On Mac OS, it's possible to select two different devices as Input and Output Device. On Windows this is not possible - you'll need to select the same device as both the Input and Output Device.
MIDI Output Ports
- Open Live's Preferences' to the Link/MIDI tab
- Eenable the "Track" switch for the corresponding Output MIDI port. This allows you to send both MIDI notes to your hardware device to play notes and MIDI Control Change (CC) messages to automate its parameters such as the Filter Cutoff, Resonance, ADSR and everything else that can be tweaked in realtime. Note: Not all devices respond to MIDI CC messages. Check the specifications page for your device to see if that is supported
- In order to sync an external device with a built-in sequencer, or if your device has MIDI sync-able elements, activate the "Sync" button for the corresponding Output MIDI port
- Leave the "Remote" button disabled for the Output MIDI port
- For a detailed explanation of these functions, please check this article about Live's MIDI Ports
MIDI Input Ports
- Enable the "Track" button for the Input MIDI port if you wish to receive note and/or MIDI CC data
- Enable the "Remote" button if you wish to MIDI map functions in Live using the controller
Local Control: If using a synth with a keyboard, to avoid redundant messages turn the synth's local control off. This means that playing keys or tweaking knobs will not affect the synthesizer directly, but only send these messages from its MIDI Out to Live; these will then be sent back from Live to your synth through its MIDI In. Check the synthesizer's manual to find out how to disable local control (depending on the manufacturer this might be called something else).
There are two methods of controlling and monitoring hardware from Live.
Method 1 - Using External Instrument
The External Instrument device is the most convenient way of using hardware in Live. It allows you to play and control your external gear in a similar way to using any Live Instrument device. MIDI and audio are combined into a single channel and the device is controlled through MIDI clips. MIDI effects and Audio effects can be added to the same track.
Note: This device is only available in Standard or Suite.
- Set both the MIDI output port and the audio input port(s) which are connected to the hardware device.
- Live will try to compensate the audio latency when using the External Instrument. Depending on the actual hardware device you are using, some additional latency might be introduced. You can fix this by adjusting the "Hardware Latency" slider on the External Instrument device until the audio is in sync with the rest of your set.
Here's Live controlling and monitoring a Korg Volca Bass using External Instrument:
Method 2 - Using a pair of MIDI and Audio tracks
You can also use a MIDI track configured to send MIDI to the correct MIDI output port, then a separate audio track configured to receive audio from the correct audio input. The audio track's monitor should then be switched to "In" in order to monitor the sound. If needed, MIDI effects can be added to the MIDI track and audio effects to the audio track.
When using this method "Reduced Latency When Monitoring" should be activated in the Options menu. Then you can adjust the timing manually by adding a negative track delay on the MIDI track until it's in sync. Normally the total amount of latency listed in "Overall Latency" in Live's audio preferences should be entered as a negative track delay, e.g. -6.49. In case there is additional latency in the device itself, you may need to adjust this amount further by ear until it's in sync with the rest of your set.
Here's the same Korg Volca Bass being controlled by a separate MIDI and audio track, and with a track delay added to keep it in sync with the rest of the set:
Further Options: Synchronizing External Hardware with Live
In case you only need to synchronize your hardware and you don't need to monitor or record it in Live, you can achieve this by correctly configuring the relevant MIDI port in Live. For instructions, please reference our dedicated article Synchronizing Live via MIDI.
Further options: Controlling Multitimbral devices (Multi mode)
If your hardware device supports Multi mode (also known as Multitimbrality), meaning that you can control more than one patch or sound at the same time via different MIDI channels, the setup will be a little different - especially if your synth or audio interface doesn't provide multiple outputs or inputs.
If your synth comes with separate multiple audio outputs, you can use several instances of the External Instrument device. In this situation, each patch on the synth will be assigned to a specific MIDI channel and will send audio from a dedicated analog output into a dedicated input of your audio interface. Load the External Instrument into each MIDI track and configure the respective MIDI and audio channels accordingly.
If your synth only comes with a single (stereo) output instead, or if your audio interface does not have more than one stereo (two mono) input pair, we recommend using discrete MIDI and audio tracks as shown below.
This way, all sounds will be merged into one track.
If you intend to record the various patches as separated tracks, it will be necessary to perform a number of audio recordings, muting all but one MIDI channel each time. Again, using this method no automatic compensation will take place - you'll need to adjust the track delays accordingly.
Further options: Using Program Change Messages
You can change between different patches, patterns or presets by sending MIDI Program Change messages using dedicated MIDI clips.
To do this, use the "Pgm Change" controls located in the clip's Notes box. Add the relevant Bank, Sub Bank and Program number and upon launching that clip, the hardware device will change the preset accordingly.
Note: the device might need a little time to actually change the preset after receiving the Program Change message. If the clip contains notes right at its beginning, these might still be audible with the previous patch.
Note: If you don't need to play back MIDI notes, but rather want to use Program Changes to trigger new patterns (e.g. on a drum machine), you can create an empty MIDI clip with "Pgm Change" settings. When you launch this clip in Live, it will trigger the corresponding pattern on your external machine.
For optimal results you’ll need an audio interface with at least two stereo outputs and one stereo input. It is entirely possible to do this if you have just one stereo output (two mono outs) and a single mono input - but in this case the effects will be purely in mono.
One output is your master sound output (which goes to your monitors) and the second output is used to route audio to the effects device. The input will be used to return the effected signal to Live for monitoring and recording.
Connect an audio output (mono), or pair of outputs (stereo), from your audio interface to the input(s) on the hardware effect, then connect the audio out of the hardware effect to an input (mono), or pair of inputs (stereo), on the audio interface.
Method 1 - Using External Audio Effect
The External Audio Effect device allows you to send audio from Live to the hardware effect then route the effected audio back into Live, all within the same device. It can either be added to any track in Live as an insert - the effected level can be adjusted using the Dry/Wet dial - or it can be added to a return channel and used like any other return effect, in which case you should set it to 100% Wet.
'Audio To' selects the output(s) on your computer’s audio interface that are connected to the input of the external effect, while 'Audio From' selects the input(s) on the interface that are connected to the output on the external effect. As with the External Instrument device, any latency in the hardware effect(s) can be compensated for with the Hardware Latency slider. For further details about the External Audio Effect device, please reference its section in the manual.
Depending on your audio interface, you may also need to adjust some routings in the interface's dedicated control panel. Please refer to the manual or manufacturer's website for further instructions.
Please note, this device is only available in Live Standard or Suite.
Method 2 - Using a return track and audio track combination
It's also possible to use external effects with a combination of a return channel, to send audio to the effect, and an audio track to monitor the effected audio. For this method "Reduced Latency When Monitoring" should be active in Live's Options menu.
Create a blank return channel and set the 'Audio To' to the same output(s) on your audio interface that are connected to the input of the external effect.
Then create a blank audio track and set the 'Audio From' to the same input(s) that is connected to the audio output of your hardware effect. Change the monitor to 'In'. This is the track that will be used to monitor the effected audio from your hardware effect.
In order to send audio to the device, set the 'Send' dial on the track(s) to be effected to full, then adjust the level of the audio track which is monitoring the effected signal to balance the amount of 'Wet' audio. In order to compensate for any latency you can adjust this by adding a negative track delay to the monitoring track.
In this screenshot, Return A 'TO Effect' is sending a copy of the signal from Analog to the effect, and the effected audio is returned to Live via inputs 1/2 on a blank audio track 'FROM Effect':
There are a few different methods of recording the output of your hardware as audio in Live. These vary depending on your preference and how it's actually being controlled in the first place. If you wish to record the hardware into Live first, in order to have an individual recording of that part to be combined with the whole set, then we recommend methods 1-4. If you wish to simply export a render of the entire track as one piece, then use method 5.
Method 1 - Record directly from the external input (Best for Mono recordings)
This method is recommended if you are modulating the hardware in realtime from the actual hardware itself - for instance tweaking the filter cutoff on a synth while recording a pass.
Create a blank audio track. For mono hardware devices set the "Audio From" to route audio directly from a single audio input which is connected to the hardware device. This allows you to record a mono track directly into Live, rather than an unnecessary stereo track.
If using External Instrument, keep the monitor of the additional audio track set to "Off" (to avoid doubling the sound), then arm it for recording. If using a pair of MIDI and audio tracks, the tracks's monitor will already be set to "In". Simply arm it for recording.
Here's a screenshot showing External Instrument monitoring the audio from the Korg Volca Bass and then audio track 2 recording directly from the input on the audio interface in mono.
Method 2 - Record internally (Best for Stereo recordings)
If the hardware device has a stereo output, you can instead use Live’s internal track routing functionality to record audio from the External Instrument track. Because the output is already in stereo, you don't need to make a mono recording and by recording internally it will also compensate for any latencies automatically.
Open the I/O Monitor section on the audio track and set "Audio From" to receive audio directly from the External Instrument track. You can choose between Pre FX, Post FX and Post Mixer - we recommend Pre FX as this will then allow you to record the raw audio from the hardware in case you want to further process or adjust any effects afterwards.
Here's a screenshot showing the same synth being recorded internally within Live in stereo. The audio is tapped to record Pre FX:
Method 3 - Export the individual track
If you don't need to tweak or modulate the hardware from the device itself, you may choose instead to export the individual track out. Choose Export Audio/Video from Live's file menu (Shift + CTRL/CMD + R). Once confirmed this will render the track in real time. You can set it to auto-restart on dropouts, or continue regardless:
Method 4 - Freeze and Flatten the track
This method works similar to Method 2, just instead of choosing the export command - right click the track and Freeze and Flatten it. If you wish to retain the MIDI pattern, you'll need to first export the MIDI clip - either directly exporting the MIDI file using the 'Export MIDI Clip' command in the file menu, or drag it to Live's browser to save it as a Live clip. More information on both methods in our manual. Or you could also duplicate the track before freezing and flattening one of them, thereby also saving a duplicate of the External Instrument and any MIDI or audio effects which you may have used.
Method 5 - Render the entire set
You may also choose to keep the hardware entirely "live" until the moment you export your track. Choose the Export Audio/Video command from Live's File Menu. The disadvantage to this method is that if you wish to make any subsequent tweaks to the arrangement or mix-down, you'll need to re-do the whole recording all over again.
While it's almost impossible to completely eliminate latency in a computer-based recording system, there are various strategies which can reduce it.
- Reduce the buffer size and raise the sample rate
- Use "Reduced Latency When Monitoring" if monitoring in Live
- Monitor through your audio interface if it supports direct monitoring
- Monitor through an external mixing desk
- If the recorded audio is mis-aligned, use "Driver Error Compensation"
More information on all of the above can be found in our article about Latency and Delay Compensation.
Check our detailed article on Latency FAQs.